Edition 1.3

July 2003 



Walter G. Green III and Suzanne McGinnis


Copyright 2003 by Walter G. Green III.  All rights reserved.  Permission to reproduce granted to current faculty members of the University of Richmond School of Continuing Studies for inclusion in their online courses.




Style guide, Internet style guide, emergency management style guide, emergency management research, disaster science style guide, disaster science research.




In this initial edition for comment, examples of citations are not necessarily those of actual articles, books, authors, journals, etc.  In some cases colleagues have been appropriated to do duty as exemplars.  Actual examples will be substituted in the first edition intended for class use, scheduled for release in August 2003. 




(1)  This style guide is applicable to all original emergency management and disaster science research submitted for consideration for publication in either of the Internet publications, The Electronic Journal of Disaster Science or Notes on the Science of Extreme Situations.  Because the intent is that all student work in courses in the Emergency Services Management program at the University of Richmond be possibly publishable in one of these two peer reviewed journals, it also serves as the style guide for all undergraduate and graduate research papers in courses in the program.






(2)  Often prescribed, but rarely understood, style guides shape the reporting of knowledge and the development of new research in academic settings and in peer reviewed publications.  These include general style guides designed for broad areas of academic work, such as Turabian’s (1996) and the Modern Language Association’s (Gibaldi 2003) handbooks, discipline specific style guides published by associations, such as the American Psychological Association’s (2001) and the American Political Science Association’s (1993), and even specific style guides for individual publications.  Each of these guides differs from each of the others.


(3)  The format rules of a style guide exist to present information in a consistent way, so that users can understand the outline of the arguments presented and the relationships between the components of the work.  The citation rules of a style guide assist readers in assessing the truthfulness of the arguments presented and in the location and use of these same sources for further study. 




(4)  The selection of style has a significant impact on both research activity and the reporting of results.  On many topics, the very volume of material available forces the researcher to wade through large numbers of pages that have little or no value in order to locate material of importance to his or her work.  This search may be complicated by the logic used by search engine catalogers and by the selection of key words used both to tag the original material and by the researcher in searching.  Style in an Internet world ought to simplify the use of the Internet to locate additional information on sources, authors, and events.


(5)  Even when the search engine has catalogued a page correctly, and the researcher and the search engine are in agreement, there is no guarantee the page searched for will be there, or that it will be there in its previous form.  Sites with valuable information appear and disappear with great rapidity, and historical data may be lost instantly when a site owner conducts an update.  This turbulence in content is recognized as a significant issue in the preservation of knowledge; less often considered is the impact of the increasingly popular use of active hyperlinks which may present radically different information or simply be dead when a reader pursues them. 


(6)  The technology of the Internet is not to be overlooked as an influence on style.  Not all typefaces translate well between browsers.  Not every paper retains its format when translated into hypertext markup language.  Colors will not necessarily print as intended when the printer only prints in black and white.  And how does one cite the location of a quotation on a web page that lacks traditional pages?  Internet styles should be designed to satisfy the simplest common browser denominator, and to be transparent to paper sizes.  


(7)  Finally, current styles in academic use in the United States are based on knowledge of the United States and its publications and fluency in American English.  How does a researcher for whom English is a second language, American usage a third language, and United States geography a question mark, identify with certainty the meaning of NM in a bibliographical reference?  Lest this be thought an inconsequential question, residents of New Mexico tell stories, possibly apocryphal, of the United States Postal Service requiring those desiring to send them mail to add postage for delivery to a foreign country.  Plain and simple language in the context of use by the wide range of Internet users assumes much the same value as the avoidance of agency specific radio codes does for the Incident Command System.      




(8)  To the greatest extent possible, papers should be arranged in a standard way that logically leads the reader through the writer’s research process and convinces the reader of the truthfulness of the outcome.  Although not every paper will require the standard divisions described below, and different divisions may be appropriate for a specific paper, in the absence of other guidance this model should serve as a baseline.




(9)  The title of the paper should be in all capital letters, centered on the paper.  If the title is of sufficient length to require more than one line, the second and subsequent lines should be shorter than the top line.  Type the word “By” centered in upper and lower case two lines below the title and the author’s name one line below that.  Two lines below the author’s name, type the header KEYWORDS, and center one line below that the keywords for electronic search.




RESEARCH PROBLEM OR RESEARCH QUESTION.  (10)  In a research paper, the first section of the work should describe the research problem or research question and provide a clear statement of what is studied, why it was studied, and what the potential application of the outcome of the study was.  This section should be brief and to the point, so that readers can rapidly assess whether the focus of the research is of value in possibly answering questions of interest to them.


INTRODUCTION.  (11)  The second section will be the introduction.  The content of the introduction may vary based on the nature of the work, but it should provide a clear definition of the scope of the project, the rationale for its initiation, assumptions used by the research in structuring the project, and initial expectations as to the outcome of the project.  Any appropriate disclosure of relationship of the researcher to the subject should also be included in the introduction.


LITERATURE REVIEW.  (12)  The third major section should be a literature review.  The literature review demonstrates your familiarity with the work that has already been done on this topic or on related topics.  Literature reviews should set the stage for the research paper, and are generally most effective if they work from the broad general context to a narrow focus on the surroundings of the topic and finally to a very narrow focus on the specific issue.  The literature review should tell the story of what is already known and convince the reader as to why this topic is an important or interesting one for research.


METHOD.  (13)  The fourth section describes the research method.   The term methodology, although commonly used, is incorrect, as it indicates a body of methods or the study of methods, rather than the use of a method to study a problem.  The method section should clearly define how you performed the research, with enough step-by-step detail that another researcher could duplicate your steps.  If decisions were made as to what method to use or how to apply the method to the specific situation, those decisions should be explained here.  The method section should also describe clearly the population studied.


RESULTS.  (14)  The fifth major section reports the results of application of the method in gathering research data.  Results should be reported dispassionately without analysis or discussion. 


ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSIONS.  (15)  The final section provides the author’s analysis of the results, discussion of that analysis, and conclusions that the researcher drew from the study.  The analysis and discussion should provide a carefully structured argument that shows how the literature, the method, and the results logically support the researcher’s conclusion.  The analysis and conclusion should also highlight unexpected results, and offer possible explanations, described failures or short comings, and suggest any areas for further study that emerged in the development of the project.  




(16)  Field notes and observation reports can be presented as finished documents as they have the potential to significantly increase the volume of documented observations of actual practice, and Notes on the Science of Extreme Situations specifically solicits such reports.   In general, field notes reports should include the major headings normally found in other reports (although these sections may be significantly shortened): research question, introduction (describing the site and activity observed and its significance), literature review or document review (specifically if extant documents such as plans, standard operating procedures, checklists, forms, etc. were reviewed), and method (to the degree necessary to describe the parameters of observation).   The space normally taken by a results section should be expanded and may be titled and organized in the manner that makes the most sense in the observation activity; in some cases a functional description may be most appropriate, in others a chronological description, and in yet others a description based on major issues observed may be applicable.  This section, or series of sections, should be followed by a section providing analysis and conclusions. 




(17)  Literature reviews can provide an important summarization of the research and analysis of specific areas of interest to disaster scientists, and, although often regarded as being not much more than glorified book reports, they have an important role in interpreting the evolution of thought on significant issues.  A literature review as a complete paper should address the research question, introduction, and method (to describe how the area of investigation was selected and to delineate how the sources were located).  Following these sections, the literature should be arranged in one or more sections based on the researcher’s objectives.  This organization might be chronological to show the development of thought over time, by schools of thought to show how major approaches to the subject evolved, functional to show how thought addressed specific relationships or topics, or in almost any other way that makes sense given the research question.  The analysis and conclusions section may be used to restate the key theme of the project and outline how the major points advanced in the review demonstrate this key theme.




(18)  Case studies are a long established method of examining in detail the outcomes of specific disaster events.  Although the format of case studies varies based on the objectives of the writer, in general they should provide a formal examination of the incident and the lessons identified from it.


THE EVENT.  (19)  This short paragraph, two or three sentences long, identifies two things clearly for the reader. First, what event is being analyzed in terms of type, name (if a named event), dates, location, and major outcome? Second, what makes this case of significance to the overall understanding of disaster events?


SCENARIO.  (20)   The scenario provides a description of the disaster. Often this is written in a chronological order to allow the reader to understand the situation as it developed, although other organization models, such as a systems approach, or one based on functional areas, could be appropriate. Scenario information should include all pertinent details, and end at the point at which the analysis in the case study is applied. However, extraneous details that clearly have no bearing on what has happened and why should be excluded. This section may be the bulk of the material in the study.


ADDITIONAL FACTS.  (21)  This section may be used if there is background information the reader needs to know in order to understand what happened. Typically, this information bears on the capability of the people or organization or infrastructure or equipment to deal with the situation. Such factors as training, education, qualification, fatigue, staffing levels, other human factors, budget, facilities, maintenance, accident history, or organization not obvious from the scenario itself might be addressed here.


REFERENCES.  (22)   A reference section may be inserted at this point if the reader should be expected to refer to a specific document, contract, provision of law, standard operating procedure, plan, or other document in order to understand the case. The reference should be clear enough to allow the reader to find the specific document easily. In addition, it should include a one or two sentence explanation of the relevance of the document to the case. This is not the works cited section of the study.


QUESTIONS.  (23)  A questions section may be used if the case author has identified, based on scenario, additional facts, and references, certain key questions the case study must answer. This is the equivalent of the hypothesis or research question section of a research paper and helps to focus the reader on what the author considers to be the critical issues.


PROBABLE CAUSE.  (24)  Used often in accident cases, this section points out what the investigator believes to be the one final event that irrevocably caused the incident. In disaster case studies this may be the irrevocable act at the moment of crisis, or the long-standing chronic condition, that caused the outcome to be as bad as it was.


LESSONS IDENTIFIED, DISCUSSION, ANALYSIS, RECOMMENDATIONS.  (25)  These sections may be used, to some degree interchangeably, to discuss the key events in the case, provide an analysis of what those events mean, and recommend actions to capitalize on success or avoid future failure.


(26)  A lessons identified section combines all of the elements of discussion, analysis, and recommendation.


(27)  An analysis section tends to be focused on technical interpretation of the scenario, attempting to discover factors that led to the outcome. It may use a method such as fault tree or statistical analysis or decomposition to discover relationships or individual elements of the event.


(28)  A discussion section tends to examine implications of an event and of the analysis and to paint a broader picture, placing the event and findings in context. In addition, it may be used to examine the implications of actions taken after the event in attempts to mitigate or prepare for future such events.


(29)  A recommendations section allows the investigator to make specific recommendations for mitigation or preparedness.


CONCLUSION.  (30)  A short conclusion section should restate the key recommendation (if any), supported by the critical argument from discussion, and relate it to the questions. Ideally, a reader should be able to read the event section and the conclusion, and nothing else, and still have the bare bones of the issue.




(31)  A well-organized series of headings throughout the work helps both the author and the reader.  For authors, headings provide an outline of the argument they have developed and help to ensure that the relationships are clear.  For readers, the headings break the topic up into logical chunks and show the relationships the author intended.  In this style guide all headings are done as capital letters.


(32)  Primary headings are the major sections of the work; their titles appear as all capitals centered on the page one line above the text, with a blank line above and below them.  Secondary headings highlight major thoughts, concepts, or activities within a section; these titles are flush with the left margin with a blank line above and below them.  Primary and secondary headings are not numbered with paragraph numbers.  Tertiary headings subdivide thoughts, concepts, and activities when several paragraphs are necessary to examine each of several issues.  These are placed immediately in front of the paragraph number at the start of the first paragraph of the subdivision.


(33)  Headings should be used only when it is necessary to divide the work into sections.  A major section that consists of two or three paragraphs most probably does not require the use of secondary headings.  Similarly, tertiary headings will only be necessary if a major thought or concept requires detailed analysis of its several component parts.




(34)  Papers should be prepared using a current edition of Microsoft Word.


(35)  The standard margins are 1 inch at top, bottom, left, and right.  All text, except headers, will be left justified.


(36)  Pages are not numbered.  All paragraphs are numbered sequentially from the first to the last paragraph in the document, regardless of their relative position or importance.


(37)  Font is Verdana 10 point.  Font color is black.  Paper will be white.


(38)  Line spacing will be double-spaced.


(39)  In general do not use abbreviations and acronyms.  The Internet allows users from a wide variety of organizational, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds to access material.  Abbreviations and acronyms that make sense in your professional setting may have no meaning, or perhaps even misleading or offensive meanings, in theirs.  Do not use abbreviations in listings of works cited - editor, edition, number, volume, etc. should all be spelled out.  Similarly do not use abbreviations for locations unless those abbreviations are customarily used for that specific location, such as St. for Saint or Ft. for Fort.  Use of postal abbreviations should be avoided as they may be meaningless to readers from countries unfamiliar with the geography of the country or with its postal system.


(40)  Underlining of text is reserved for active hyperlinks.  In general, the text should not include active hyperlinks as the potential for links changing or disappearing is high enough to create distractions for the reader.  If information at a site is vital to the argument being advanced, include the information in the text and appropriately cite it.  Word processors now routinely generate an active hyperlink for any uniform resource locator you type – in Word, to disable the link, highlight it, go to <edit hyperlink>, and select <remove link>.  Active hyperlinks are appropriate in the Works Cited.


(41)  In general the use of additional notes (such as endnotes or footnotes) is not encouraged.  If material is important enough to include to explain or support a point, it is important enough to include in the actual text of the development of the argument.


(42)  Work prepared in any language should follow the normal rules of syntax, spelling, grammar, and punctuation for that language.  Papers prepared for The Electronic Journal of Disaster Science should be in English.  Papers prepared for Notes on the Science of Extreme Situations should be in English, Glosa, or Unish.  Papers in other languages will be acceptable as long as they are accompanied by an accurate English translation.


(43)   Quotations should be enclosed within quotation marks, with a quotation mark placed at the start of the quote and one at the end.  Block quotations should be typed single spaced to the margins of the paper, and enclosed within quotation marks.  In general, block quotations should not exceed 150 words, and no more than 300 words should be quoted from any single source in a paper.  More extensive quotations should be accompanied by the author’s permission as a letter or electronic mail or by documentation of a general permission to reprint as a separate document attached to the paper.


(44)  Information on costs should be in the currency of the transaction or incident with the currency clearly identified in the text.  All amounts should be then-year amounts, unadjusted for inflation.


(45)  Dates should be in the format day-month-year, with month and year not abbreviated.




(46)  Tables are used to report quantities of data or to highlight relationships between data.  Figures are used for diagrams and maps.  Tables and figures should be constructed using the same edition of Word as is used to prepare the text.  Photograph, graphics image, and other types of files are not appropriate as they may not translate when the document is converted to a .pdf or HTML file.


(47) Tables and figures are numbered sequentially throughout the work, for example, Tables 1, 2, 3, etc. and Figures 1, 2, 3, etc.  Tables should be constructed using the table feature of the word processor, and should show the division lines used to structure the table.  Figures will be constructed using the drawing features of the word processor.  Tables and figures will be left justified.  The number and title of the table or figure will be typed above the information depicted.  The source used to prepare the table or figure will be cited following the word Source below the information using the format used for parenthetical notation.  For example:


Table 17.  Use of Tables in Scholarly Papers Submitted to The Electronic Journal of Disaster Science



Mean Number of Tables per Article

Mean Number of Figures per Article











Source:  Green 1994


(48)  Tables and figures will be referenced in the text and their significance noted.  This may be either through a discussion of the material (for example, “as the data in Table 17 shows, there is no obvious relationship between the number of …”)  or by a parenthetical reference (for example, “(see Table 17)”).    




(49)  Each paper should be accompanied by the appropriate number of keywords to facilitate electronic searches.  Keywords should be listed under their own heading at the top of the first page of the paper under the author’s name.  In general, key words should be chosen to match the logical subjects which readers might use to search for the paper.  Keywords should be consistent with major topics discussed in the text of the paper.  




(50)  The use of sources and their citation perform three key functions.  First, they acknowledge the contributions of others to your research and reporting.  Second, they allow others to verify the truthfulness of your work by gaining access to the sources you have used.  Third, they aid other researchers in identifying new sources that will assist them in developing further research in their specific areas of interest.  Each of these is a vital contribution to the quality and value of your work. 


(51)  Any information you use in your paper that does not come directly from your personal experience and observation or that is not the result of data you gathered using your resource method must be acknowledged.  If it is someone else’s idea, random thought, observation, data, or whatever, you must cite the source in the body of your text and include the source in detail in your works cited section.  Failing to do so means you have stolen their work.


(52)  The value of your own observations and experience is increased by other authorities observing or experiencing the same thing, and your citing those authorities as confirming your work or yourself as confirming theirs.  This additional support makes it more likely that your work is truthful, valid, and reliable.


(53)  There is no minimum number of sources or citations for a paper, and there is no set formula of a certain number of citations for each page.  A paper that consists almost entirely of original research in a field with a bare minimum of previous articles may have no more than five or six sources and close to the same number of citations.  A paper that covers a topic with a rich literature or that relies on a large number of extant documents may have 30 or 40 sources and 50 to 100 citations in the text.  The minimum is the number needed to effectively communicate that you have examined the topic in depth, found the right sources, and used them to effectively craft your argument.




(54)  Citations of authors will be parenthetical citations located following the material cited within parentheses with the author’s last name followed by the date of the publication.  If the text of the paper includes the author’s name (“as Green states …), only the date is cited in parenthetical notation.  If the citation identifies quoted material, the page or pages from which the quotation is drawn will be indicated by the number of the pages following the date.  Examples are:


for a source not quoted:  Current uses of the Incident Command System show a tendency toward organizational inflexibility (Green 2004).


  for the source of a quotation:  (Green 2004, pages 11-12)


(55)  If the source for a quotation is an Internet source that has assigned paragraph numbers to paragraphs, cite quotations by paragraph numbers.  If no numbering system is in use, indicate the paragraph by using the appropriate suffix to the number counted from the first paragraph in the work.  For example:


for numbered paragraphs:  (Green 2001, paragraph 12)


with unnumbered paragraphs:  (Mahon 2003, 17th paragraph)


(56)  If the work is by multiple authors, only the first two authors are listed, separated by a comma.  For example:


(Green, McGinnis 2003)


(57)  If the work is by an organization, use only the highest level name.  For example, a publication by the Section on Crisis and Emergency Management of the American Society for Public Administration would be listed as:


(American Society for Public Administration 1999)


(58)  If an author has multiple works that you cite during a given year, use the name followed by the year and the first three words of the title.  For example, if you used three publications by the Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1996, the citation for Evaluating Local Emergency Management Programs would be:


(United States 1999 Evaluating Local Emergency)


(59)  If multiple works are cited for a specific statement or fact, separate the works within the parentheses by a semi-colon, with the most recent work listed first.  For example:


(Altay 2003; Green 2001; Commonwealth of Virginia 1999)


(60)                 If the author is not available for a source, use the first three words of the title, either in italics for a major work or in quotations for a minor work.  For example:


(“42 bodies found” 2003)


(61)  Active hyperlinks to citations of other articles in the electronic journals published by the Emergency Services Management degree program or to The Electronic Encyclopaedia of Civil Defense and Emergency Management are encouraged.  These should be enabled by inserting the hyperlink on the author’s name in the citation.






(62)  Listings of works cited will include only those sources which have been cited in the paper.  Materials read for background, dictionaries, style guides, etc. are not listed as works cited.


(63)  The general sequence of listings of works is author; contributing work title; main work title; editor; edition, volume, or media; place of preparation, storage, or publication; publisher; date; and location in a larger work.  In general, periods separate information that stands alone in the listing (author, titles, editor, edition) and semicolons separate related items.  In general, names and titles are capitalized in accordance with common usage; supporting identifying data is not capitalized. 


(64)  When listing publications published in languages other than English, titles, addresses and locations should be specified in the original language. 




(65)  Authors are listed by last name, first name, middle name or initial, suffix, title (if available), and affiliation (if available), followed by a period.  This provides the greatest potential for rapidly locating a specific author by Internet search.  For example:


Green, Walter Guerry, III, Ph.D., University of Richmond.


(66)  Second and subsequent authors are listed with their names in the normal order of first, middle, and last, separated from the previous author by a semi-colon, with the final author preceded by and.  Authors are listed in the order listed in the publication.


Green, Walter G., III; Suzanne McGinnis; Ellen Walk; and Nezih Altay. 


(67)  Organizations are listed by the parent organization, and by each subsequent division of the organization, each separated by a period.  For example:


United States. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Emergency Management Institute.




(68)  Titles are divided into two general categories: documents that were designed to stand alone as permanent works (for example: books, conference proceedings, monographs, white papers, journals, newsletters, reports, research databases, extensive web sites, electronic journals, plans, software), and documents intended to be part of a larger publications (for example: chapters, articles, papers delivered at a conference, individual pages within a larger web site, etc.)  The titles of documents designed to stand-alone will be in upper and lower case in Italics.  For example:


for a book:  Command and Control of Disaster Operations.


for a journal: Notes on the Science of Extreme Situations.  


for a scholarly electronic database: The Disaster Database Project.


(69)  The titles of documents that are part of another work or that are minor works in their own right (for example, a short briefing paper or an internal proposal or a standard operating procedure in a series of such documents or a checklist) are enclosed by quotations.  For example:


“Field Notes on a National Disaster Medical System Disaster Drill.”


(70)  Titles of work products, such as memoranda for the record, staff reports, internal documents, and correspondence will generally be the subject of the document when given.


(71)  If no title is specified for the work, the title will be listed as “no title.”  For example:


Green, Walter G., III, President, American Disaster Reserve.  no title.  e-mail to Norman Whitney …


(72)  The contributing work, for example a chapter in a book or an article in a journal, is always listed first.  The main work is always listed second.  In the case of a chapter in a book or a paper in a collection of papers it is customary to identify the inclusion in the larger volume by prefacing the title of the main work with the word “In.”


for a book chapter: “The Development of the Flood.”  In Noah Get Your Ark.


for a journal or magazine article:  “Effective Use of Warm Sites.”  Business Recovery News.




(73)  Editors for publications that do not have definable chapters or sections written by individual authors are treated in the same way as an author, with the addition of a comma and the word “editor” following their name.  For example:


Green, Walter G., III, editor.


(74)  Editors for publications from which you have cited the author and a section or chapter follow the title of the main work and are followed by the word "editor."  Revisers of classic works are located in the same position but are preceded by “revised by.”  For example:


Mahon, Susan.  “Emergency Operations Center Drills.”  In Disaster Exercises.  Walter G. Green III, editor. …


Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. …


(75)  Editors are only cited for books.  Editors of journals, newspapers, conference paper collections, and similar documents are not listed.




(76)  The issue of serial publications (journals, trade journals, magazines, newsletters, electronic newsletters, etc.) should be identified using Volume, Number, and Date, as available.  Volume and number follow the title of the publication; date is cited later as indicated below.  For example: 


Volume 27, Number 6.


(77)  When books are published in a second or revised or subsequent edition, the edition should be identified using the same method as the publishers uses.  For example:


2nd edition.


revised edition.


(78)  Storage and publication media other than books or journals should be identified by type.  Examples might include: brochure, certificate, incident log, video cassette, map, working paper, personal journal, log book, or CD-ROM.


(79)  Letters, memoranda, and electronic correspondence will be specified by the type of correspondence and the addressee.  For example:


for a letter: letter to Walter Green.  


for electronic mail: e-mail to Sue Mahon.  


(80)  Specific software applications examined in the course of research should be identified by the term computer software and the edition or release number.  For example:


Ajax Software. Emergency Command System.  computer software, Version 2.3.  …




(81)  Books and other major works, journals, work products, and correspondence should identify the place at which the document was prepared or published by City and State, or by equivalent address in other nations, followed by the correct name of the country.  The place of publication is normally followed by a semicolon and the publisher.  For example:


Richmond, Virginia, United States of America


(82)  Conference papers will be identified by the location of the conference at which they were presented.


(83)  Collections of physical specimens, ephemera, manuscripts, and correspondence should be specified in sufficient detail to allow the researcher to locate the material cited with a minimum of assistance.  In general, they should identify the location in the same manner as the place of publication of a book, the organization holding the collection, the collection name, and where within the collection the material is located.  For example:


for a physical artifact:  Richmond, Virginia, United States of America, University of Richmond, The Physical Archive of Civil Defense, Armbands, Drawer 3


for individual papers:  Richmond, Virginia, United States of America, The American Disaster Reserve, Board of Directors Correspondence, 2002-2003


(84)  The location of materials published on the Internet will be identified with as much precision as practical.  Complete uniform resource locators for sites should be specified for all materials that appear to be intended for long term Internet storage, preceded by the word “location.”  However, many news and electronic magazine articles are transient.  In this case it is sufficient to list the front page of the publication, if that front page provides a search capability.  For example:




(85)  Making active hyperlinks to individual Internet sites cited in the Works Cited runs the risk of the site no longer being there or having its content radically changed by the time a reader consults the link.  Under any conditions, if a site is no longer active when the paper is submitted for consideration, the hyperlink for that site should not be active.  Active hyperlinks in the Works Cited to other articles in the electronic journals published by the Emergency Services Management degree program or to The Electronic Encyclopaedia of Civil Defense and Emergency Management are encouraged.  The actual uniform resource locator should be enabled as the hyperlink.  If active hyperlinks are included insert the following disclaimer below the title of the Works Cited section and prior to the start of the bibliographical listings:


“Internet addresses for electronic sources cited in this paper were accurate at the time of preparation of the paper in its final form.  Material on Internet sites changes rapidly, and locations specified may contain different material from that available to the author at the time of writing or may no longer be active.”


(86)  Personal electronic mail is highly transient.  Inclusion of the e-mail addresses may allow the researcher to contact one of the correspondents for further information; therefore the from and to lines serve as the location.  For example: to


(87)  If no place of publication or storage is indicated for the work, the place will be listed as “no place.”




(88)  Publications, including journals and organizational newsletters, and documents that appear as printed documents or that are work products should indicate the full name of the publisher or the organization of origin as normally used by that entity.  The publisher is normally followed by a semicolon and the date.


(89)  Papers presented at conferences should list the conference as the publisher.  Volumes of conference papers should list the organizer of the conference as the publisher, unless otherwise published.


(90)  Documents and Internet sites in which the author is also the publisher may substitute the term “published by the author” for the name of the publisher.


(91)  If a publisher cannot be identified, list the publisher as “no publisher.”


(92)  Documents that are not produced in a printed form or that are individual correspondence not intended for general publication should be described as “not published.”




(93)  Dates for newspapers and other periodicals will be cited as the day, month, and year, as available.  Magazines, professional publications, and academic journals will be cited by date as well as volume and number where available.  For example:


when day, month, and year are available: 12 March 1947. 


when only month and year are available:  June 1963.


(94)  Dates for conference papers, or other types of presentations, will be the actual date of presentation, if known, or the dates of the conference.


for actual date of presentation:  22 April 2003.


for conference dates: 14-15 November 2002.


(95)  Dates for manuscripts and professional work products will be the date of completion.


(96)  Dates for books will be the year of publication of the edition or printing of the volume used in preparing the research.


(97)  Dates for Internet pages will be as first choice an actual date of publication or of update as indicated on the specific page.  If no date is given, the date on which the researcher accessed the material will be used, accompanied by the word “accessed.”  For example:


accessed 29 March 2001.


(98)  If no date is indicated on the work, the date will be listed as “no date.”




(99)  Articles in newspapers, magazines, journals, or other periodicals and chapters in books will be identified by the pages.  If papers are cited from a conference proceedings in which all pages are sequentially numbered, the paper will be identified by pages.  For example:


for single page:  page 17  


for multiple pages:  pages 22-35


(100)  Articles or other equivalent materials in online publications that are numbered or lettered should be identified as they are identified on the site or in the publication.  For example:


Article 4


Paper No. 6


Blueprint A-6




(101)  The following examples provide a range of typical actual sources, each described in the sequential format: author; contributing work title; main work title; editor; edition, volume, or media; place of preparation, storage, or publication; publisher; date; and location in a larger work. 


a book:


Green, Walter G., III, Ph.D., University of Richmond. Command and Control of Disaster Operations. Parkland, Florida, United States of America; Universal Publishers; 2001.


a chapter in a book:


Kreps, Gary A., College of William and Mary. “Organizing for emergency management.” In Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Thomas E. Drabek and Gerard J. Hoetmer, editors. Washington, District of Colombia, United States of America; International City Management Association; 1991; pages 30-54.


a newsletter article:


Lambert, Bob, Virginia Department of Emergency Management.  “State/local partners unified in command of Jamboree safety.” Emergency Management Update. Richmond, Virginia, United States of America; Virginia Department of Emergency Management; September 2001; pages 1 and 4.


a newspaper article with no author’s byline:


“U.S., British navies rescue ship’s 27 crew members.”  Richmond Times Dispatch.  Richmond, Virginia, United States of America; Richmond Times Dispatch; 25 June 2003; page A-4.


a record in an electronic research database:


Green, Walter G., III, Ph.D., University of Richmond.  “River Slope Mine Flooding.”  The Disaster Database Project.  location; published by the author; accessed 1 July 2003.


an operational website:


American Disaster Reserve. 35th Brigade.  The Virtual Emergency Operations Center.  location; published by the author; accessed 21 May 2003.


an e-mail:


Singer, Robert M., Vice-President, American Disaster Reserve.  “Re: Articles of Incorporation.” e-mail to Walter G. Green III; to; not published; 14 June 2003.




(102)  The Electronic Encyclopaedia of Civil Defense and Emergency Management uses several specific format instructions that authors should follow.  However, in general the instructions of the style guide above apply.


(103)  Each entry should be identified by a short title, typed in bold at the start of the first paragraph and terminating in a colon.  Immediately following the title should be the name of the country involved followed by a period.  Following the country is the date covered by the entry in a year range followed by a period.  The first paragraph follows immediately after the title, country, and date listing.


(104)  Paragraphs are not numbered. 


(105)  In text citations are used only for quotations.  In keeping with general practice in encyclopedias, sources are acknowledged collectively at the end of the entry.


(106)  Tables will be numbered in sequence with the entry number assigned by the editor, using the format of entry number, hyphen, and table number.


(107)  Sources for each entry will follow the entry, preceded by the word "Sources" and a colon.  Each entry will separate the items of the entry by commas, as opposed to semi-colons, commas, and periods.  Complete entries will end with a period.  The entire sources section is typed in italics.





American Political Science Association.  Style Manual for Political Science.  revised edition 1993.  Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America; American Political Science Association;1993.


American Psychological Association.  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.  5th edition.  Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America; American Psychological Association; 2001.


Dees, Robert, Orange Coast College.  Writing the Modern Research Paper.  2nd edition.  Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; Allyn and Bacon; 1997.


Gibaldi, Joseph.  MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.  6th edition.  New York, New York, United States of America; The Modern Language Association of America; 2003.


Turabian, Kate L., Dissertation Secretary, University of Chicago. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, These, and Dissertations. revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. 6th edition. Chicago, Illinois, United States of America; The University of Chicago Press; 1996.