The Electronic Encyclopaedia of Civil Defense and Emergency Management

edited by Walter G. Green III

Copyright Statement:

Copyright 2001, 2002, 2003 by Walter G. Green III. All rights reserved. Permission to reproduce entries is granted to university faculty and students for teaching and reference when accompanied by acknowledgement of The Electronic Encyclopaedia of Civil Defense and Emergency Management as the source.


The mission of The Electronic Encyclopaedia of Civil Defense and Emergency Management is to support research, learning, and teaching in the history, organization, and theory of civil defense and emergency management and to preserve information from a variety of sources that may otherwise prove ephemeral. As a result entries may be for very narrow and apparently insignificant topics or for very broad and important issues.

Entries and Sources:

Entries, and updates to existing entries, are gladly accepted from any researcher in emergency management, civil defense, air raid precautions, or disaster science and should be directed to the editor. Authorship is acknowledged for each complete or partial entry accepted for inclusion in the Encyclopaedia. Any entry not cited by author is written by the editor.

Entries should be prepared in the format generally used throughout the Encyclopaedia, with a clearly identifiable title, nation, dates, and text, and full list of sources used in the preparation of the entry. Citations of sources should be prepared in accordance with the attached Style Guide.  Submit proposed entries to the editor.

Entries reflect the wide range of activities involved in civil defense and emergency management and related fields of activity. They include broad doctrine and theory; organizational structure and history; specific plans, documents, and reports; facilities; capabilities; exercises; volunteer programs; individual identification and recognition; and almost any other topic that might concern leaders and managers in the field. Entries also attempt to document some of the key participants in the field, at every level, to provide some insight into the role of people in the program.

This is a living document, with new entries and additions and corrections being made to existing entries on a continuing basis. The individuals and topics chosen for inclusion are selected based on the editor's preferences, available time for preparation of the entry, and current teaching and research needs. Because of the nature of the subject matter, a wide variety of sources, including brochures, forms, correspondence, trade publications, and Internet sites, are used in preparation of the entries. Where appropriate, entries may be supported by artifacts in the collection of The Physical Archive of Civil Defense. The size of entries in no way reflects the importance of topics – rather it is the product of the availability of source material to the author.

Last Update:

Entries in this encyclopedia were last updated on 18 May 2005.

Table of Contents:



2.a. General

2.b. Germany Third Reich

2.c. Germany Weimar Republic

2.d. Japan

2.e. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

2.f. United Kingdom

2.g. United States of America


3.a. Terminology

3.b. International Civil Defense

3.c. Republic of Erie

3.d. German Democratic Republic

3.e. Israel

3.f. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

3.g. United Kingdom

3.h. United States of America


4.a. United States


5.a. United States






Alphabetical Index:

1922-1923 Hague Convention (Entry 06124)


Active Defense (Entry 0242)
Aerial Bombardment Accuracy (Entry 04120)

Air Raid Precautions in World War II Moscow (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) (Entry 0237)
Air Raid Precautions Organization (United Kingdom) (Entry 0101)
Air Raid Precautions Services (United Kingdom) (Entry 0102)
Air Raid Protection Organizations (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 0124)
Air Raid Refuge Room (United Kingdom) (Entry 0359)

Anderson Shelter (United Kingdom) (Entry 0392)
Austin Police Department Civil Defense Battalion (United States) (Entry 0356)

Auxiliary Fire Service (United Kingdom) (Entry 0397)

Auxiliary Fire Service Appliances (United Kingdom) (Entry 0375)

Auxiliary Fire Service Equipment (United Kingdom) (Entry 03104)

Banner of Peace (Entry 0366)
Becton, Julius (United States) (Entry 0103)

Bolivian Strategic Bombing in the Gran Chaco War (Paraguay) (Entry 04115)
Bombing of Guernica (Spain) (Entry 0357)

Bombing of Helsinki (Finland) (Entry 03114)
Bombing of Warsaw (Poland) (Entry 0358)

Bomb Shelters (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 03102)

British Air Defense in World War I (United Kingdom) (Entry 0386)

Caldwell, Millard Fillmore (United States) (Entry 0385)

Chuikov, Vasily I. (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) (Entry 04121)

Citizens’ Defense Corps Organization (United States) (Entry 0104)
Citizens’ Defense Corps Ranks and Titles (United States) (Entry 0105)
Civil Air Defense (United States) (Entry 0240)
Civil Defense (Entry 0364)
Civil Defense: The Carter Administration (United States) (Entry 0106)
Civil Defense: The Eisenhower Administration (United States) (Entry 0107)
Civil Defense: The Ford Administration (United States) (Entry 0108)
Civil Defense: The Johnson Administration (United States) (Entry 0109)
Civil Defense: The Kennedy Administration (United States) (Entry 0110)
Civil Defense: The Nixon Administration (United States) (Entry 0111)
Civil Defense: The Reagan Administration (United States) (Entry 0112)
Civil Defense: The Truman Administration (United States) (Entry 0113)
Civil Defense and Emergency Management Organizational History (United States) (Entry 0114)

Civil Defense and Emergency Management Regions (United States) (Entry 0391)
Civil Defense Organization Ranks (Israel) (Entry 0238)
Civil Defense Service Position Insignia of the Leadership Cadre of the Action Force (German Democratic Republic) (Entry 0255)
Civilian Defense Award for Service (United States) (Entry 0115)
Civilian Gas Masks (United Kingdom) (Entry 0369)

Combating Incendiary Bombs (United Kingdom) (Entry 0396)
Community Shelter Planning (CSP) (United States) (Entry 0116)
Comprehensive Emergency Management (United States) (Entry 0250)
Conglomerate (United States) (Entry 0117)

Control of Electromagnetic Radiations (CONELRAD) (United States) (Entry 04119)

Council of National Defense and State Defense Councils (United States) (Entry 0393)
Crisis Relocation Planning (CRP) (United States) (Entry 0118)

Dellums, Ronald  (United States) (Entry 0119)
"Der Stahlhelm" Bund der Frontsoldaten (Germany Weimar Republic) (Entry 0378)

Douglas Aircraft Plant (United States) (Entry 0247)

Elliott, Tom J. (United States) (Entry 0120)
Emergency Broadcast System (United States) (Entry 0121)
Excellent Service Man of the Civil Defense of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Badge (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) (Entry 0122)

Executive Order 9562 (United States) (Entry 0384)

Exercise Hard Rock (United Kingdom) (Entry 04117)

Exercise Square Leg (United Kingdom) (Entry 04116)

Feuerschutzpolizei (Entry 03110)

Flak Towers (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 0244)
Flugmeldedienst (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 03107)

Four Phases of Emergency Management (United States) (Entry 0251)
Franklin, Calvin G. (United States) (Entry 0123)

Freiherr von Richthofen, Field Marshal Dr. Wolfram (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 0382)

German Firefighting Vehicles (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 03108)

German Planning for Bomber Attacks on New York (Entry 03105)

German Planning for Zeppelin Attacks on the United States (Entry 03106)

Govorov, V. L. (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) (Entry 0125)

Green Goddess (United Kingdom) (Entry 0372)
Ground Observer Corps Aircraft Reports (United States) (Entry 0126)
Ground Observer Corps Filter Centers (United States) (Entry 0127)

Ground Observer Corps Observation Posts (United States) (Entry 03113)

Ground Observer Corps Organization (United States) (Entry 03112)

Haskell, William N. (United States) (Entry 0387)

Hitlerjugend (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 0249)

Hoegh, Leo Arthur (United States) (Entry 0367)
House Republican Research Committee National Defense Task Force (United States) (Entry 0248)

Incipient Fire Fighting (United Kingdom) (Entry 0395)

Increased Readiness (United States) (Entry 0239)

Indian Army Fallout Shelters (India) (Entry 04122)
Integrated Emergency Management System (United States) (Entry 0252)
International Civil Defense Emblem (Entry 0363)

Irish Civil Defense Ranks and Insignia (Erie) (Entry 0398)
Ivanov (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) (Entry 0361)


Japanese Civil Defense in World War II (Japan) (Entry 0390)


Key Asset Protection (United States) (Entry 0128)

King's Badge (Entry 0399)


LaGuardia, Fiorello Henry (United States) (Entry 0388)

Luftschutzturme (Air-Raid Tower) (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 03101)

Luftschutzwarndienst (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 0129)

Luftwaffe Motorized Air Protection Battalions (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 03109)


Mini Blast Shelter (United States) (Entry 0377)

Mobile Civil Defense Shelter (United States) (Entry 0246)

Mobile Fire Column (United Kingdom) (Entry 0376)

Morrison Shelter (United Kingdom) (Entry 0368)


National Civil Defense and Emergency Management Directors (United States) (Entry 0253)
National Emergency Alarm Repeater (NEAR) System (United States) (Entry 04118)

National Fire Service (United Kingdom) (Entry 0130)

National Fire Service Helmet Rank Markings (United Kingdom) (Entry 0373)

National Fire Service Regions (United Kingdom) (Entry 0374)
Nuclear Civil Protection (NCP) Program (United States) (Entry 0131)

Packaged Disaster Hospitals (United States) (Entry 0245)
Passive Defense (Entry 0243)

Peanut Island Bomb Shelter (United States) (Entry 0380)
Prentiss, Augustin M. (United States) (Entry 0241)
PRM-32 (United States) (Entry 0132)

Proclamation 2487 (United States) (Entry 0389)

Redhill Container (United Kingdom) (Entry 0360)

Reichsluftschutzbund Ranks and Rank Insignia (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 0381)
Reorganization Plan No. 3 (United States) (Entry 0133)
Roerich Pact (Entry 0365)

Schnellkommando (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 0135)
Sicherheits und Hilfsdienst (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 0134)

Stirrup Hand Pump (United Kingdom) (Entry 0394)

Strategic Bombing in World War I - Germany (Germany) (Entry 0383)

Strategic Bombers of Between the Wars (Entry 0371)

Strategic Bombers of the Cold War (Entry 0379)
Strategic Bombers of World War I (entry 0362)

Street Fire Parties (Entry 0384)


Tirana, Bardyl R. (United States) (Entry 04123)

Trekking (United Kingdom) (Entry 03103)


United States Air Force Ground Observer Corps (United States) (Entry 03112)

Von Schroder (Germany Third Reich) (Entry 0136)

Warning Codes (United Kingdom) (Entry 0254)

Women's Air Raid Defense Ranks and Titles (United States) (Entry 0370)

Women's Voluntary Service for Air Raid Precautions (United Kingdom) (Entry 03100)