INTEGRATED EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (IEMS):  United States. 1983 to date.  The Integrated Emergency Management System provided the conceptual basis for the implementation of Comprehensive Emergency Management across the Four Phases of Emergency Management in an all-hazards environment.   As expressed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the goals of the Integrated Emergency Management System were to:

 

---  achieve common national goals through a flexible, but full, partnership of federal, state, and local government.

 

---  implement emergency management programs of known effectiveness.

 

---  integrate emergency management planning with other state and local policy making and operations.

 

---  use existing plans and systems as the basis for developing an all hazards response capability.

 

The result was the development of a system with two parallel paths, the first focused on current capability, and the second on the improvement of existing capabilities, described as a 13 step process:

 

---  current capability:

 

Step 1 – Hazard Analysis – to identify potential hazards and their probable impacts.

 

Step 2 – Capability Assessment – assess current capabilities to respond to the hazards using standards and criteria established by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

 

Step 3 – Emergency Operations Plans – write, modify, or upgrade emergency operations plans with functional annexes and hazard specific appendices.

 

Step 4 – Capability Maintenance – establish a regular program to maintain and update current resources and capabilities, including equipment, facilities, supplies, and personnel.

 

Step 5 – Mitigation Efforts – introduce mitigation to reduce impacts and lessen any shortfall between capabilities and the threat posed by hazards.

 

Step 6 – Emergency Operations – effectively carry out emergency response with existing capabilities.

 

Step 7 – Evaluation – assess the outcomes of emergency operations, including exercises, to identify differences between actual and required capabilities and requirements for future mitigation.

 

---  capability improvement:

 

Step 8 – Capability Shortfall – identify the difference between current capabilities and Federal Emergency Management Agency standards as the basis for future development.

 

Step 9 – Multiyear Development Plan – develop a five year plan to develop the capabilities needed by the specific jurisdiction to meet its situation.

 

Step 10 – Annual Development Increment – develop annual plans for the work to be accomplished over the next year, based on changes in the situation and the success of previous efforts.

 

Step 11 – State and Local Resources – identify the resources, both financial and in-kind, required to carry out the annual plan and identify sources for these resources.

 

Step 12 – Federal Sources – the Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement provides the funding mechanism for annual projects.

 

Step 13 – Annual Work Increment – completion of annual work will be reflected in adjustments to both emergency operations plans and development plans.

 

This process was institutionalized in the Hazard Identification, Capability Assessment, and Multi-Year Development Plan for Local Governments process, usually known by its acronym of HICA/MYDIP.  It is questionable whether even large local jurisdictions carried out the Integrated Emergency Management System as described by the 13 steps. 

 

Hoetmer, Gerard J., “Introduction,” in Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government, Thomas E. Drabek and Gerard J. Hoetmer, eds., Washington, DC, International City Management Association, 1991, pp. xvii-xxxiv.  Godschalk, David R.., “Disaster mitigation and hazard management,” in Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government, Thomas E. Drabek and Gerard J. Hoetmer, eds., Washington, DC, International City Management Association, 1991, pp. 131-160. United States, Federal Emergency Management Agency, The Emergency Program Manager, IS-1, Washington, DC, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1993. United States, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Integrated Emergency Management System: Hazard Identification, Capability Assessment, and Multi-Year Development Plan for Local Governments Workbook, Washington, DC, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1985.

 

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