COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE AND STATE DEFENSE COUNCILS: United States. 1916-1918. In 1916 Congress included language in the Army appropriations act establishing a Council of National Defense with the Secretaries of War, the Navy, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor as members, and with the Secretary of War serving as Chairman. The Council was formally established on 29 August 1916. Council responsibilities included coordinating transportation, industrial and farm production, financial support for the war, and public morale. Starting in May 1917 individual states were asked by the Section on Cooperation between the States to create State Councils of Defense to assist in carrying out the work of the National Defense Council; representative state examples are cited in Table 1. In 1918 supervision of nonmilitary defense activities conducted by civilians was delegated to a field division of the Council, chaired by the Secretary of the Interior. Operations of the Council were suspended in 1921.
Table 93-1. State Councils of Defense
|State||Date Formed||Composition||Citizen Involvement||Duties|
|Illinois||2 May 1917||15 persons appointed by the Governor||
|cooperation with Council of National Defense and other State Councils, recommendation of legislation, carrying out plans agreed with the National Council, investigations|
|Nevada||1917||initially Gubernatorially appointed Committee on Public Safety; finally the Governor, Secretary of State, State Controller, Attorney General, and 7 citizens||
county and community councils
|initially reporting un-American activities to the Governor; finally coordinating all war activities of the United States government and the Council of National Defense|
|Oklahoma||16 May 1917||extralegal 12 member council established by the Governor||
community councils at the school district level
over 1,000,000 volunteers
|promotion of loyalty and anti-dissenter activity, propaganda, war bond promotion|
|Texas||10 May 1917||38 members appointed by the Governor||
240 county councils
15,000 community councils
|make Texas's resources available to the nation, coordinate state war work, organize local councils, and sponsor independent state defense activities|
A review of records surviving from the State Defense Councils suggests the breadth of the range of non-military defensive activities undertaken (although it is arguable whether all of these actions were essentially defensive in nature):
In a number of states Women's Committees of National Defense were established as part of this effort. And in July 1918 the Section on Cooperation between the States of the National Council urged Southern states to form separate Negro organizations so that the efforts of African-American citizens could be specifically recognized; only Oklahoma did not do so.
This was the first organized governmental civilian defense effort in United States history, but unlike contemporary European civil defense activity, its focus was not shaped by ongoing threat of air attack. As a result, the American view of civil defense that emerged from the experience of the Council of National Defense was far broader in scope, setting the general stage for civil defense in the United States as a force for national mobilization and an enforcer of political reliability.
Sources: Illinois State Archives, "Record Group 517.000 - State Council of Defense (World War I)," location http://www.sos.state.il.us/departments/archives/di/517_002.htm, accessed 16 August 2003. Nevada, Department of Cultural Affairs, Nevada State Library and Archives, "Nevada State Council of Defense, World War I," location http://dmla.clan.lib.nv.us/docs/nsla/archives/archival/spboards/cdwwi.htm, 14 July 2003. Wilson, Linda D., Oklahoma Historical Society, "Oklahoma Council of Defense," in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, location http://www.ok-history.mus.ok.us/enc/okcouncildef.htm, accessed 16 August 2003. The Texas State Historical Association, "Texas State Council of Defense," in The Handbook of Texas Online, location http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/view/TT/mdt24.html, 4 December 2002.
Entry 0393 - posted 17 August 2003