EXERCISE HARD ROCK.  United Kingdom. 1982.  The United Kingdom conducted Exercise Hard Rock in 1982 as its national emergency exercise.  The nuclear scenario resulted in 7,000,000 fatalities and 5,000,000 injured in a Soviet first strike with no civilian evacuation of target areas.  Media coverage and publicity by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament created significant doubts as to the effectiveness of measures that would result in such large fatality numbers, and 20 County Councils declined to participate in the exercise.  This resistance led to the issue in 1983 of the Civil Defence (General Local Authority Functions) Regulations requiring council participation in civil defence measures.

Sources: Turney, Simon, former Director of West Yorkshire Fire and Civil Defence Authority,"Deadliest decades divide the nation," Civil Protection, Number 51, London, United Kingdom, Home Office, Winter 2000/2001, pages 8-10.

Entry 04117 - posted 21 January 2004