1922-1923 HAGUE CONVENTION: December 1922 to February 1923.  The 1922 conference at The Hague attempted to establish rules for air warfare that limited the use of airpower in war to the achievement of military objectives. Among the provisions of the draft convention resulting from the conference were:

ARTICLE XXII - prohibited aerial bombardment for the purpose of destroying private property, injuring non-combatants, or terrorizing the population.

ARTICLE XXIII - established that aerial bombardment was only legitimate when it was directed toward a military objective. 

ARTICLE XXV - required that commanders use all possible care to prevent the bombardment of buildings not being used for military purposes.

ARTICLE XXVI - established the right of states to declare zones of protection extending to a width of 500 meters around important historic monuments, conferring immunity from bombardment to those monuments.  Such zones were to be communicated to other nations through normal diplomatic channels in peacetime and could not be withdrawn during war.

The final draft document was not signed by any of the participating of the conference, and thus it never took effect.

Sources: Grayling, A. C., University of London, Among the Dead Cities: The History and Moral Legacy of the WWII Bombing of Civilians in Germany and Japan, New York, New York, United States of America, Walker and Company, 2006.

Entry 06124 - posted 26 May 2006