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Jeffrey R. Carlson
Associate Professor of Marketing

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I am an associate professor in the Marketing Department at the Robins School of Business, University of Richmond.

My research focuses on how internal factors within a given organization impact strategic choice, outcomes, and performance, and how organizations communicate with consumers. Broadly, the focus of my research is in the domains of advertising effects, salesforce effectiveness, and marketing strategy. My current research focuses on these topics including for example, how subjective time impacts marketing strategy. In addition, I am also exploring perceptions of discount credibility, and how polychronicity influences salesperson effectiveness.


Published Papers

Business Buyers Are People Too: Exploring How Geodemographics Affects B2B Selling Effectiveness, with Joel Mier, Danny Bellenger and Welsey Johnston, Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, forthcoming in 2020.

Abstract: Drawing from the Contingency Model, this study investigates the moderating effects of business-to-business buyer personal characteristics on the relationship between sales activities and sales effectiveness. As an application of engaged scholarship, we leverage a years’ worth of sales activity and results from a Fortune 500 financial services company for 2,710 dyads; personal characteristics (i.e., geodemographics) were appended for the customers/prospects of the dyads. The data was analyzed with hierarchical regression and subgroups were tested employing the Chow test. The results support that geodemographic segments – as a proxy for personal characteristics – moderate the strength of the relationship between selling activities and sales effectiveness. Overall, the results demonstrate that selling activities have varying impacts on sales effectiveness within geodemographic segments and buyclass scenarios. While it has been long held that understanding the personal characteristics of the B2B purchasing decision maker is critical for sales effectiveness, little guidance has been provided on how to accomplish this to scale. The present study provides a framework of how to employ. This research contributes to the literature that has explored personal characteristics of buying center members. Additionally, our results suggest that personal characteristics of the purchase decision maker may transcend B2C and B2B purchasing contexts.

How Augmented Reality Affects Advertising Effectiveness: The Mediating Effects of Curiosity and Attention toward the Ad, with Shuai Yang and Sixing Chen, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 2020.

Abstract: Many major consumer-driven companies have started to use augmented-reality (AR) technology and AR apps to enrich their customers' shopping experiences and engagement with their brands, and to ultimately increase sales. However, there is scant research discussing the application of AR in an advertising context. Thus, the major goal of this study is to explore how, why, and when augmented reality influences advertising effectiveness. A field experiment and two laboratory experiments demonstrate that an AR advertisement increases consumers’ attitude toward the ad through an increase in their curiosity toward the ad and attention toward the ad (i.e., measured by a physiological measure using eye-tracking). However, the effects only hold when consumers are unfamiliar with the AR ad technology. Overall, this study provides practical implications to advertisers who are considering integrating augmented reality technology in their advertising efforts.

About Time in Marketing: An Assessment of the Study of Time and Conceptual Framework, with William T. Ross, Jr., Robin Coulter and Adam Marquardt, AMS Review, 2019.

Abstract: An inspection of time-related research in marketing documents two dominant conceptualizations of time: objective time and subjective time. Objective time is straightforward, and refers to clock time. In contrast, subjective time is quite nuanced and refers to the differential experience and perception of time. Recognizing this distinction, a number of scholars have suggested that the marketing discipline relies upon objective time, and as a result, does not have a fully developed understanding of time. Conducting a historical assessment of time, we demonstrate that marketing has a conceptually-bounded view of time. We develop a conceptual framework that reconceptualizes time as objective and subjective and as experienced by multiple referents, and develop research propositions that highlight the importance of integrating a broadened view of time into marketing research, recognizing that we are better off thinking about time as objective time and subjective time. We conclude with a di cussion highlighting future research opportunities.

Investigating Discounting of Discounts in an Online Context: The Mediating Effect of Discount Credibility and Moderating Effect of Online Daily Deal Promotions, with Monika Kukar-Kiney, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, March 2018.

Abstract: This research sheds light on the theoretical mechanism behind consumer discounting of discounts and extends it to the online daily deals context. Based on advertising and behavioral pricing research, we develop and empirically test a conceptual model of the effects of discount level on consumer perceptions of discount credibility, the extent of discounting of discounts, and change in purchase intentions for online daily deal promotions as compared with price promotions offered directly by online stores. The findings offer important managerial recommendations for retailers and daily deal managers with respect to utilizing direct online price promotions and daily deal promotions.

Brand Social Engagement: Will Firms' Social Media Efforts Influence Paid Search Advertising?, with Shuai Yang, Shan Lin and William T. Ross, Jr., Journal of Marketing Management, 2016.

Abstract: Although firms leverage social media platforms such as Facebook to engage with customers, they often treat social media elements and other online marketing activities such as search engine advertising as stand-alone, rather than part of an integrated online activities system. Hence, it is important to systematically understand how specific elements of social media, signifying and representing behavioural manifestations of brand engagement, relate to other online activities. We study how three types of brand engagement on social media – affiliation, conversation and responsiveness – influence search engine advertising effectiveness, including click-through rate and conversion rate. Specifically, we find that affiliation, conversation and responsiveness increase click-through rate and conversion rate. Moreover, brand engagement on social media strengthens the relationships between advertisement rank and search engine advertising effectiveness.

A Fresh Look at Consumers' Discounting of Discounts in Online and Bricks-and-Mortar Shopping Contexts, with Monika Kukar-Kiney, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 2015.

Abstract: This research replicates Gupta and Cooper's (1992) study on consumers' discounting of discounts for different brand reputations in a bricks-and-mortar shopping channel and extends the investigation to an online environment. We determine that although discounting of discounts is on average stronger online, it has remained remarkably stable over time and across retail channels. Promotion thresholds are zero regardless of retail channel and brand reputation. Further, consumers perceive a discount to exist even without advertised promotions.

'I Eat Organic for My Benefit and Yours:’ Egoistic and Altruistic Motivations to Purchase Organic Food and their Implications for Advertising Strategists, with Ioannis Kareklas and Darrel D. Muehling, Journal of Advertising, 2014.

Abstract: We employ a novel adaptation of self-construal theory to explain the theoretical basis of factors that influence organic food purchase decisions. Study 1 reveals that egoistic (e.g., personal health) and altruistic (e.g., environmental) considerations simultaneously predict consumers' organic attitudes and purchase intentions. Study 2 indicates that societal considerations play a more influential role for green/organic products. Study 3 tests advertising treatments utilizing egoistic and/or altruistic claims. Results show that an ad featuring both egoistic and altruistic appeals produces more favorable responses than either an egoistic treatment or a control ad, but is equally effective as an ad featuring altruistic claims.

The Role of Regulatory Focus and Self-View in “Green” Advertising Message Framing, with Ioannis Kareklas and Darrel D. Muehling, Journal of Advertising, 2012.

Abstract: This research draws on theoretical perspectives related to regulatory focus and self-view in the context of “green” advertising appeals. A pattern of results similar to that typically reported in the literature is replicated (i.e., promotion-framed messages are more persuasive for individuals with an active independent self-view, whereas prevention-framed messages are more persuasive for individuals with an active interdependent self-view)—but only when persuasive messages focus on personal health appeals. A considerably different set of relationships is observed when messages focus on environmental appeals. Consistent with our theoretical expectations regarding goal compatibility effects, prevention-(as opposed to promotion-) focused environmental appeals generated more favorable attitudes for individuals who are situationally primed to have an independent self-view. In the interdependent self-view condition, the promotion-focused appeals performed as well as or better than the prevention-focused appeals. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed, and future research directions are offered.

Book Chapters

Cracking the Code of Organic Food Labels – Consumer Confusion about Label Claims and Practitioner Guidelines, with Bill Bergman, Deciphering Organic Foods: A Comprehensive Guide to Organic Food Consumption , 2017.

Abstract: Consumers have remained generally confused on what organic food labels signify. On one hand, some consumers believe that organic food labels denote products that are more nutritious and safe. On the other hand, some consumers believe that organic food labels represent nothing more than a crafty and misleading advertising ploy. Both camps, however, do not reflect the actual intent of an organic food label, in addition to current scientific knowledge. Hence, many consumers are confused over what organic food labels represent. This chapter explores the state of organic label confusion among consumers, and theoretical mechanisms that explain the antecedents and consequences of organic food label confusion. We end with practitioner guidelines and best practices.


University of Richmond

Full List of Courses
MKT 326: Marketing Research and Analysis
MKT 323: Professional Selling
MKT 320: Principles of Marketing
MKT 324: Sales Management
MBA 539: Marketing Research

University of Connecticut

Full List of Courses
MKTG 3101: Introduction to Marketing Management
MKTG 3665: Digital Marketing

Curriculum Vitae

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Contact Information

Postal Address
Department of Marketing
Robins School of Business
University of Richmond
102 UR Drive
VA, 23173

Office Information
Office: Robins School of Business (BUS) 348
Office Hours: Tuesday from 1:30 to 3:00pm; Wednesday from 2:30 to 3:30pm


+1 804 287 1852