Dr. Barbara K. Sholley
Office Hours: 2:30 - 3:30, TR, and
The Psychology of Diversity covers a wide range of concepts. It examines the roles of language, culture, social psychology, personality, and cognitive processes to determine how these work together to create the magnification and maintenance of stereotypic differences between and among groups.
The course will give students an opportunity to explore human diversity from a wide range of theoretical and methodological perspectives that are causative and reflective of culture. Students should emerge from the course with a more profound understanding of groups other than their own. Misconceptions, and even prejudice where it exists, should be replaced by knowledge.
HUMAN DIVERSITY COURSE OBJECTIVES
1. To introduce students to the various methodologies within psychology including qualitative and quantitative research. This will be accomplished through the wide variety of readings ranging from oral histories, to interviews, to current experimental reports.
2. To recognize the biological as well as the social perspectives and contributions to diversity issues in psychology.
3. To have students model the evaluation of research and theory reported in the assigned class readings. This is accomplished through class discussions of the readings where the class articulates the arguments and counters with alternative explanations for the findings.
4. To introduce students to examples of recent research on specific topics. They will also encounter a limited amount of older research, included to assure inclusive coverage of variables considered in the course.
5. To have students individually integrate and critically evaluate a sub-set of the literature. This will be accomplished on a daily basis through discussion of the readings and also by a research paper.
6. To introduce and/or reinforce the use of APA style in the writing of papers including proper citations. All students, including non majors, are encouraged to purchase the APA Publication Manual, and upperclass students are encouraged to assist underclass students with the format of their papers.
Baird, Robert M. and Rosenbaum, Stuart
E. (Eds.) (1992). Bigotry, prejudice and hatred: definitions,
causes & solutions. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 234
Tannen, D. (1990). You just don't understand. New York: Ballentine
Guthrie, Robert V. (1998). Even the rat was white: A historical view of psychology, (2nd Ed).Needham Heights, MA: Allyn&Bacon.
Rubin, Lillian (1994). Families on the Fault Line. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Ford, Michael Thomas (1996). The World Out There. New York, NY: New Press.
Click on TEXT REVIEWS if you wish to read more about these and other related texts.
ATTENDANCE POLICY: Students are expected
to be in class unless they have an appropriate excuse. Being present
for presentations and exams is taken for granted. This class is
primarily a discussion class which requires active participation!
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|Aug 25||I ntro - Choose Group|
|Aug 27||Practice electronic Search|
|Sept 01||Read & Discuss ethnic biographies|
|Sept 03||Read & Discuss ethnic biographies|
|Sept 10||Bigotry, prejudice and hatred - Chaps 1-9|
|Sept 15||Film - Cosby on Prejudice|
|Sept 17||NO CLASS|
|Sept 22||Bigotry, prejudice and hatred - Chaps 10-18|
|Sept 24||Film - Still Killing us Softly & Stale Roles and Tight Buns|
|Sept 29||Readings on Gender|
|Oct 01||You just don't understand - Chaps 1-5|
|Oct 06||You just don't understand - Chaps 6-10|
|Oct 13||Readings on Blacks|
|Oct 15||Film - Ethnic Notions|
|Oct 20||Even the rat was white - Chaps 1-4|
|Oct 22||Even the rat was white - Chaps 5-9|
|Oct 29||Readings on Class, Ethnicity, Religion|
|Nov 03||Families on the Fault line - Chaps 1-6|
|Nov 05||Families on the Fault line - Chaps 7-11|
|Nov 10||Film - No place like Home|
|Nov 12||Readings on Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals|
|Nov 17||Film - Out: Stories of Lesbian and Gay Youth|
|Nov 19||The World Out There pgs 1-100|
|Dec 01||The World Out There p gs101-end|
|Dec 03||Evaluating similarities and differences|
Click here for Film Reviews
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1. Ethnic History is due on the third class day: Type a three page personal ethnic history. This paper should describe your ethnic identity. For example, what kind of jokes does your family tell or spurn? What kinds of foods do you eat, especially at certain times of the year? What are your family expectations about education? Who lives with your family or who do you visit often? What is the role of language within your family? Do you have an accent? How does the region of the country you are from affect you.These are not limiting, but are rather suggestions about topics to think about when writing your history. These papers will be read aloud during class so that everyone has the opportunity to learn about everyone else.
2. Research Proiect: Each of you individually
will write a paper that addresses your group topic. You should
be able to learn to think critically about a psychological topic
that personally intrigues you. You will be able to be more skeptical
about research, understand how biasing occurs, and develop alternate
hypotheses. You should also learn to appreciate diversity and
understand how the very nature of diversity can limit (or enhance)
individuals' potential. You should also become fascinated with
the world of research. Early in the semester the class will visit
the library electronically and learn how to conduct background
research for your paper. The nature of the past research will
help you to determine what kind of paper you want to write as
well as what areas have already been investigated.
All types of papers require acquiring your own data. The methodologies differ.
Types of papers (and examples): (from Margaret Matlin)
A. Archival Analysis. A quantified inspection of magazines, books, and other media or documents. Select a sufficiently narrow topic so that the information is manageable. This could be an paper that uses the Internet if that is a place that you are skilled. Sample titles:
C. Naturalistic observation.
Record behavior in a natural setting. This can include non-verbal
as well as verbal behavior. You could also make a video and provide
your own commentary.
It is important that regardless of what
you choose to do that you follow APA ethical guidelines. This
means that you need to guarantee anonymity for participants,
keep all information confidential, not invade personal privacy
without informed consent, and not cause any psychological or
physical harm. Informed consent is difficult to obtain in observations,
so we can ask other students and faculty whether they believe
that the research falls within ethical guidelines. If you choose
to complete a questionnaire, then you need to have your proposal
reviewed by the Institutional Review Board. This permission
is not difficult to obtain, but there are forms to complete and
the process takes about a week. You will need to plan ahead.
Style and due dates of papers
The papers will be written in APA format and style. If you have not purchased an APA Publication Manual, this might be the right time for you to do so. The paper needs to include an Abstract, Introduction [background information, forumlation of question], Methods [selection of materials or subjects, collect information], Results [patterns, data analysis], Discussion, [interpretations, conclusions] and References.
DRAFT INCLUDING INTRODUCTION, METHOD, AND REFERENCES DUE OCTOBER 15 1999
THE DRAFT WILL BE GRADED AND TURNED IN WITH THE FINAL PAPER. THE FINAL PAPER DUE NOVEMBER 19, 1999 THIS IS BEFORE THANKSGIVING!
3. WebBoard. Because this is a class that may provide you with information that conflict with what you believe and may challenge some of your values, it is important that you have the opportunity to express yourself, especially to each other. You also may find that class time won't always allow "finishing" a topic. As a result we will have group journals on the webboard. Here are the rules.
a. Everyone must participate.
b. No more than once a week, at least
10 times [there are 14 weeks in a semester, so plan ahead], you
will write in your group journal using the email system. You
will need to create a nickname file. If you already know, please
help others. Your entries should be at least one substantive
paragraph, or longer (but try to keep the length manageable for
others.) Expect to spend at least 20 minutes. on writing. The
objective is to give you lots of practice expressing your ideas
in writing without the concern of being graded on that writing.
In addition you will have an opportunity to explore and share
ideas that may help you choose a research topic.
c. You cannot get this requirement over
in a hurry by writing multiple entries in a single week. This
is a semester-long project.
d. Before you write your entry, read
all those already written by your group members. Do not write
to your professor. Your audience is your classmates.
e. Occasionally your professor will
write - just like everyone else and will offer topics. You, too,
may change a topic if you feel one is getting stale.
4. Diversity Awareness - to become more personally aware of the complexity of diversity issues.
In this project, you should find a way to experience cultures that are different from your own. Attend lectures, see documentaries, visit churches, attend social events, participate in volunteer activities [See Marci Bozeman, coordinator of LINCS]. (Fortunately, the University of Richmond has made a good effort to provide you with many of these opportunities. Take advantage of them. There are many ethnic festivals in the city of Richmond. Class differences are obvious within the university environment. Try to find a place where you will be the minority person. Write approximately a 2-page paper about your experience. What was the general nature of what you did or read? What did you observe? What did you learn? What kind of biases do or do not exist?
5. Class Discussions: The class will be arbitrarily
separated into four sections: gender; race; class,and ethnicity/religion;
and gay, lesbian, bisexual . Each of you will select one of these
groups for the core articles! Feel free to be original in your
presentation -- fish bowls, skits, transparencies, etc. Be sure
to stress THREE points from each of the core articles that you
think are critical to the authors' point. Build your discussion
around those 3 points. Remember that you are TEACHING this material.
What you don't want to do is lose your audience. If there is
something you would like your fellow students to have prepared
before your presentation be sure to give them advance notice.
(If anyone who is not a member of a particular group wishes to
read the core readings, they will be available outside my office.)
The reading group will know "extra"
material that would normally be the basis for lectures on the
topic. Each member of the group will be responsible for
ALL of the material. You should be able to discuss all
the articles, interact with each other about similarities and
differences and show how "extra" articles either support
or disconfirm information you have learned. We present evidence
in order to persuade and in order to illuminate. When you present
information for the rest of the class, keep your points in mind.
You may even want to provide an outline. Note that active listeners
learn more than passive listeners. Feel free to use multi -media
equipment with which you are familiar. As you prepare this information,
realize that you may entertain if you wish but entertainment
should enhance the points that you are making rather than be
your sole purpose. Remember, too, that you need to work cooperatively.
You are not merely having a conversation with your classmates
but are TEACHING them information that only your group has mastered.
Group presentation grading will be based on the ability of both you as an individual and your group to present the evidence in the articles; to show thorough knowledge of all of the articles; to disseminate the information in an engaging manner; to be clear and correct in your explications; to be able to answer questions from the class; to gather information that goes beyond the "required" readings; and to include your analysis of the methods used.
6. Book Discussions: Your professor will lead the discussions on all of the books, but your assistance will be needed.
A. For each day of class book discussion you must write two questions you would like to have addressed. You will meet in small groups before each class and choose the best question from your group, which, in turn, will be discussed. These questions should be substantive, addressing the important aspects of the materials, they may not be "yes-no", and they may be creative calling on discussants to examine the nature of particular statements or imagine similar situations. All of the questions will be collected at the end of the class. Be sure that your questions focus on important points not just things that intrigue you. [Use this method for Bigotry, Prejudice and Hatred, Even the Rat was White, Families on the Fault Line]
B. Keep a page of notes. On this page
record at least five complete thoughts, ideas, reflections, or
ideas about that reading that you will be willing to discuss
in class. Examples might include
1) Ideas that relate to previous readings
2 ) Ideas that are especially interesting or novel to you
3 ) Opinions on ideas presented in the section
4 ) Reflections upon experiences with any of the ideas contained in the readings.
[Use for You Just don't understand, The World Out There]
1. Two essay exams - 100 points each
2. Leading class discussion - 50 points
3. Substantive questions/comments turned in on time -40 points (8 opportunities@ 5 points)4. Research paper, draft - 25 points
5. Ethnic history turned in - 25 points
6. Research paper - 100 points
7. Diversity Awareness paper -25 points
8. Journal - 100 points
Any individual papers that counts less than 100 points will not be accepted late. Those individual papers worth 100 points will be accepted but 5 penalty points per day will be deducted.
All members of the group are expected to read and know all of the assigned articles.
Bem, S.L. (1987). Probing the promise of androgyny. In M.R. Walsh (ed.) The psychology of women: Ongoing debates. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp.206-245. (both pro and con positions)
Caplin, P. J. & Caplin, J. B. (1994). A brief historical perspective on sex-difference research. In Thinking Critically about Research on Sex and Gender., New York: Harper Collins, 11-18.
Money, J. (1994). The concept of gender identity disorder in childoohd and adolescence after 39 years. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 20, (3), 163-177.
Reynolds, C. A. & Hewitt, J. K. (1995). Issues in the behavior genetic investigation of gender differences. In Turner, J. R., Cardon, L. R. & Hewitt, J. K. (Eds.) Behavior genetic approaches in behavioral medicine. New York: Plenum Press., 189-199.
Rosser, P. (Ap, 1987). Sex bias in college admission tests: Why women lose out. Cambridge, MA:FairTest.
Schwartz S. (1991). Women and depression:
A Durkheimian perspective. Social Science and Medicine, 32,
Allen, W. R. (Spring, 1992). The color of success: African-American college student outcomes at predominantly white and historically black public colleges and universities. Harvard Educational Review, 62, (1), 26-44.
Biafora, Jr. F. A., Taylor, D. L., Warheit, C. J., Zimmerman, R. S. & Vega, W. A. (Aug, 1993). Cultural mistrust and racial awareness among ethnically diverse black adolescent boys. Journal of Black Psvchology, 19, 19, (3), 266-281.
Berry, G. L. (Sum,1998). Black family life on television and the socialization of the African American child: Images of marginality. Journal of Comparative Family Studies., 29. (2), 233-242.
Block, N. (1995). How heritability misleads about race. Cognition, 56 , 99-128.
Gorey, K.V. & Cryns, A. G. (1995).Lack of racial differences in behavior: A quantitative replication of Rushton's (1988) review and an independent meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, (3) 345-353.
Marshall, S. (1995). Ethnic socialization
of African American children: Implications for parenting, identity
development, and academic achievement. Journal of Youth and
Adolescence, 24, (4),377-39
Dion, K.L. & Dion, K. K. (1993).
Gender and ethnocultural comparisons in styles of love. Psychologyof
Women Quarterly, , 17, 463-473.
Huston, A. C., McLoyd, V. C., & Garcia Coll, C. (1997). Poverty and behavior: The case for mulitple methods and levels of analysis. Developmental Review, 17, 376-393.
Rossiter, J. R. & Chan, A. M. (1998).
Ethnicity in business and consumer behavior. Journal of Business
Research, 42, 127-134.
Peng, S. S. & Wright, D. (July/Aug, 1994). Explanation of academic achievement of Asian American students. Journal of Educational Research, 87, (6), 346-352
Rushton,J. P. (1996). Political correctness and the study of racial differences. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 5, (2), 213-229
Whitfield, K. E. & Miles, T. P. (1995)
Studying ethnicity and behavioral medicine. In Turner, J. R.,
Cardon, L. R. & Hewitt, J. K. (Eds.) Behavior genetic approaches
in behavioral medicine. New York: Plenum Press., 210-213.
GAYS, LESBIANS, AND BISEXUALITY:
Consiorek, John C. (1993) Mental health issues of gay and lesbian adolescents in L. D. Carnets & D. C. Kimmel (Eds.), Psvchological perspectives on lesbian and gay male experiences. New York: Columbia University Press, 469 - 485.
Chan, Connie 5. (1995) Issues of sexual identity in an ethnic minority: The case of Chinese American lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people, in D'Augelli, A. R. & Patterson, C. J. (Eds.), Lesbian. gay. and bisexual identities over the lifespan. New York: Oxford University Press, 87-101.
Demo, David H. & Allen, Katherine R. (1996). Diversity within lesbian and gay families: Challenges and implications for family theory and research. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships., 13, (3), SAGE:Thousand Oaks, CA, 415-434.
Levay, Simon (1993). The sexual brain. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 105-130.
Rosarlo, Margaret, Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane, & Reid, Helen, (April, 1996). Gay-related stress and its correlates among gay and bisexual male adolescents of predominantly black and hispanic background, Journal of Communitv Psvchology. 24 , 136-159.
Stokes, Joseph P., McKirnan, David J., Dolla, Lynday, & Burzette, Rebessa C., (1996). Female partners of bisexual men. Psvchology of Women Ouarterlv. 20, 267-284.